English (United Kingdom)

Pitches and temperamentson my instruments


Unless otherwise stated I tune instruments at 440 Hz to A = 440 Hz when cold so that they will reach 442 Hz or even higher when played.

Instruments at 415, 466 Hz or other original pitches will be tuned in a nearly warm state to their tuning level, so that the instrument will sound slightly flat when cold.


I do not use equal temperament for the tuning of my instruments as this tuning system is not practical for recorders, especially in  combination with other historic instruments.

Renaissance and Early Baroque instruments I generally tune to Kirnberger III, which  facilitates their use when playing together with accompanying instruments both in mean tone and  baroque temperament. On request I am happy to tune to mean tone.


Late Baroque Instruments I tune to Valotti/Young. This temperament can easily be combined with all common baroque temperaments as well as with instruments in equal temperament (important for recorders at 440 Hz).

I will also tune the instruments to any other temperament on request.